Solar Company

How to Choose the Best Solar Panels

Many solar panels look similar to each other and it can be difficult to differentiate between high-quality and low-quality products. Luckily, there are a few important factors you should keep in mind.

Solar Panels

If you are considering going solar, it is worth considering the long-term costs and energy savings to see whether the upfront investment makes sense for your household. Contact Solar Companies Salt Lake City for professional help.

The concept behind solar energy is as old as human civilization. The first rudimentary solar panel was created as early as 1839 by a 19-year-old Frenchman named Edmond Becquerel, who discovered the photovoltaic effect – the process of directly converting sunlight into electricity. He used selenium coated with gold, which produced a small amount of electrical current.

Over the next few decades, several other scientists made advances in the field of solar energy. In 1916, chemist Jan Czochralski invented single-metal crystals, which are used in modern solar cells. In 1954, engineers at Bell Laboratories developed the first silicon solar cell that could produce a significant amount of electricity. This initial cell only generated four percent efficiency, but it was still an important step forward in solar technology.

In 1973, oil shortages in the States brought renewed interest to the idea of generating energy from sunlight. Concerns about oil spills, polluting power plants and the extinction of wildlife led to the creation of Earth Day on April 22 of that year, which ushered in the modern environmental movement. The movement encouraged the development of solar energy and gave rise to solar incentives in the form of tax credits.

Solar panels are made of semiconductor materials installed in a metal panel frame with glass casing. When exposed to sunlight, the semiconductors absorb photons of light – very small packets of energy – and release electrons, which creates an electric current. Solar panels are used for a variety of purposes in both homes and businesses. They are a renewable, clean energy source that reduces greenhouse gas emissions and lowers electricity bills.

When a solar panel is no longer needed, it can be recycled. The aluminum frames and junction boxes are dismantled manually at the beginning of the recycling process. The silicon-based modules are then crushed in a mill to separate different fractions. It is possible to recover more than 80% of the original weight of a PV module. The resulting material is marketed as recycled silicon or PVsu, and it is often utilized in building and automotive applications, as well as flat glass insulation.

Solar Cells

The solar panel is the foundation of a solar energy system. A single cell can produce up to 2 watts of electricity, enough power for small electronic devices such as wristwatches and calculators. Solar panels are assembled into modules that produce greater amounts of power. Each module contains a series of cells connected by thin strips, usually made of tin-coated copper or palladium-coated copper, which act as the transmission channel for current flow.

Solar cell efficiency depends on the temperature and the material used. It also depends on how well the photovoltaic cells are positioned, aligned, and shaded. The optimum solar panel efficiency is reached at about 10-20%.

Crystalline silicon (c-Si) cells are sliced from ingots that take up to a month to grow. They are used for monocrystalline solar panels and cells (mono c-Si) as well as polycrystalline solar panels and cells (poly c-Si). Thin-film solar cells are around 100 times thinner. They can be produced from a variety of materials including cadmium-telluride, copper indium diselenide, and organic PV materials.

A solar panel’s performance is directly proportional to its surface area, so it is important to size the system correctly. For example, a rooftop system should be sized so that it will generate sufficient energy to offset its own cost over time.

While the cost of solar panels has dropped dramatically over the past 30 years, it is still important to factor in local, state, and federal incentives into any purchase decision. These rebates, tax credits, and grants can help reduce the upfront cost of a solar system, helping to speed up the payback period.

The solar panel assembly is completed by adding a protective back sheet and an insulation layer to prevent heat loss and humidity. The back sheet is often made of glass or polyethylene, while the insulation helps to prevent the solar cell from overheating and lowering its efficiency. An antireflective coating is also added to enhance sunlight absorption. Electrical contacts are then added to connect the solar cell to other solar cells or to a battery. The contact pads can be made of tin-coated copper, nickel or silver.

Solar Panels in Cold Weather

As any solar panel owner knows, sunlight is key to generating renewable energy. But, despite a common misconception, solar panels don’t only work in warm weather. In fact, a number of factors make solar power even more effective in colder temperatures.

On a molecular level, the electrons in your solar panels are at rest (low energy) when it’s colder. When the electrons are activated by the sun’s rays (high energy), they create more electricity than they would on a warm day. The result is that solar panels produce more electricity in the winter than they do on a sunny summer day.

In addition, the sun sits lower in the sky during the winter. This can make the difference in whether your system produces a significant amount of electricity. Depending on the structure of your home, adjusting the tilt of your solar panels to allow them to face the sun more directly can help boost electricity generation.

Another factor that can decrease solar production is snow and ice accumulation. As anyone who’s experienced a cold-weather blizzard knows, if snow builds up on solar panels, it can hamper electricity output.

Fortunately, there are ways to prevent this from happening. Solar panels are typically designed with a tilt to facilitate the natural shedding of snow, preventing excessive buildup that can hinder sunlight exposure. And, since the dark surface of the panels reflects light, any snow that does accumulate tends to melt and fall off more quickly than it might otherwise.

Solar panel maintenance in the winter is essential, however. Keeping your solar panels clear of snow, debris and ice is essential for keeping them working at their best.

With regular snow removal, your solar panels can continue to deliver a steady flow of clean energy all through the winter. But, before you run outside and begin shoveling, consider the following tips to help you maintain your solar panels in colder conditions.

Solar Panels in Warm Weather

As the world heats up with blazing summer temperatures and record-breaking weather patterns, solar energy seems like an obvious solution. After all, areas that receive more sunshine and have warmer climates are often some of the best locations for solar panels. However, while hotter climates may seem ideal for solar panels, the truth is that too much heat negatively impacts solar energy production.

The reason is that solar panels produce electricity by moving electrons around the panel’s semiconductor material. The more electrons that move, the more electric current (solar power) is produced. On a cool day, it takes more energy to dislodge the electrons and create electricity than on a warm day. As the temperature rises, the panel must work harder to produce electricity. This explains why a sunny, clear winter day is actually better for producing solar energy than a hot, overcast summer day.

In terms of the specifics, solar panel performance drops off for every degree above the optimal operating temperature, which is 77 degrees Fahrenheit according to industry standards. This decrease in efficiency is a result of the semiconductor properties in the panel deteriorating with each increasing temperature. While the exact impact of this drop can vary by brand, it is important to keep in mind when considering solar energy for a hot climate.

Solar panel brands typically provide information about their optimal temperature range in their specifications. This can help homeowners make an educated decision about which solar panels are best for their home if they have a particularly hot climate or experience intense summer sun. In addition to the optimal temperature range, most solar panel manufacturers also provide a “temperature coefficient,” which is a rating that indicates how efficiently the panels perform in various temperatures.

As the technology improves and more manufacturers compete to build the most efficient solar cells, the temperature coefficient ratings are becoming more and more useful for consumers. In general, the older style crystalline silicon panels perform better in high temperatures than their newer counterparts. Your local solar salesperson will be able to explain the different ratings and how they affect your home’s solar energy production.


What Does a Plumber Do?

Plumber Sarasota installs, repairs, and maintains the pipes that carry water, gas, and waste to and from homes and businesses. They also deal with issues like clogged toilets, leaky faucets, and broken showerheads.


Licensed residential plumbers are experienced in new installations and basic repairs like float valve replacements, garbage disposal installation, and whole house re-pipes. They may also handle larger scale plumbing projects for multi-level buildings.

A plumber installs and repairs water supply, heating, ventilation and drainage systems in residential and commercial structures. Plumbers often perform inspections of plumbing components to identify issues and violations of building codes, and they use specialized equipment like video cameras to inspect pipes and pressure gauges to test for leaks. They also use their skills to assemble, install and repair plumbing fixtures and appliances such as sinks, toilets, bathtubs, showers, drains, faucets and water heaters. Plumbers often must remove or replace existing piping to reach hidden pipes and fixtures, and they may need to cut into walls to access pipes.

As part of their job duties, plumbers must be able to read and interpret blueprints and other technical documents to understand the layout of plumbing systems and to determine where new pipes should be routed. They must also be competent at using hand and power tools to assemble, install and repair plumbing fixtures, and they must be familiar with a wide range of tools and materials related to the plumbing trade. Plumbers also need to be able to work well under pressure and in tight spaces, and they must have good critical thinking and problem-solving skills.

Plumbers must be able to communicate effectively with their clients, and they may need to explain complex plumbing problems in easy-to-understand terms. They also need to be able to explain the costs associated with the required work and answer any questions that their clients may have. Plumbers must also be able to work as a team member with other members of the construction crew and must follow all relevant safety practices.

Because plumbers sometimes work with dangerous chemicals and materials, they must be able to wear the appropriate safety gear to protect themselves. This includes safety goggles, rubber gloves and a face mask. They may also need to remove or replace contaminated drywall and insulation, and they must be able to handle hazardous materials such as asbestos. Plumbers who work with sewage pipes may be exposed to infectious diseases such as cholera, typhoid and hepatitis, and they must be able to recognize and respond appropriately to symptoms of exposure.

Education and Training Requirements

The educational requirements to become a plumber vary by state, but most include completing an apprenticeship program, meeting minimum academic and work experience standards, and passing a certification exam. Many states also require licensing. Obtaining a license demonstrates your competency and professionalism, making you more marketable to potential employers.

Plumbing is a hands-on job that requires a strong attention to detail. You must be able to visualize and assess complex structures, make accurate measurements, and be comfortable working with tools and machines. Critical thinking skills are important, as you will need to weigh options and costs when solving problems. You must also be able to verbally communicate with customers about the required work and related expenses.

To start your career, you will need a high school diploma or equivalent. You can then apply to an apprenticeship, which typically lasts four to five years and combines on-the-job training with classroom instruction. You can find programs through local unions, technical schools, and community colleges.

Some programs offer scholarships or tuition assistance. Others have application deadlines, interview requirements, and entrance exams. You can also find pre-apprenticeship courses offered through Career and Technical Education (CTE) programs at some high schools. These are a great way to test the waters and see if you would enjoy this trade before committing to an apprenticeship.

Apprentices earn a wage while learning the trade. The wages increase with the years of employment. Plumbers also need a valid driver’s license to operate company vehicles to get to jobs. Some apprenticeships have age requirements, and some require background checks and drug tests.

To qualify for a master plumber’s certificate, you must have at least two years of practical experience as a journeyman plumber. You can also qualify by completing an approved educational alternative such as a bachelor’s degree in mechanical engineering plus at least five years of experience working with plumbing systems. You must pass an examination that covers the planning, design, and installation of plumbing systems. You must also submit proof of insurance coverage with a minimum of $100,000. There are also certifications for specialty fields, such as fire sprinkler installation and water heater installer.

Work Environment

Plumbers work in a variety of settings, including homes, businesses, and construction sites. These professionals install and repair pipes, fixtures, and appliances like sinks, toilets, showers, and water heaters. They also inspect plumbing systems to ensure they meet building codes and regulations. Plumbers may also specialize in specific types of plumbing, such as gas line installations and repairs. Some may choose to focus on green plumbing practices, which promote environmentally friendly water and energy efficiency.

Plumbers typically work full-time, though some may choose to pursue independent contracting opportunities. This allows them to set their own schedules and choose which projects they want to take on. It can also lead to higher earning potential, as experienced plumbers can command more competitive hourly rates. The work environment can be physically demanding, as plumbers often lift heavy objects and work in tight spaces. It can also be stressful, as the profession requires constant attention to detail and problem-solving skills.

The work of a plumber is generally safe, but there is always a risk of injury due to the physical nature of the job. Plumbers are trained to follow safety protocols and take special precautions when working with hazardous materials. Plumbers who work on construction sites must also be aware of the risk of falls and other accidents due to the heights at which they are required to work.

Many plumbers begin their careers as apprentices, which can last up to five years. During this time, they receive both classroom instruction and hands-on training from a licensed professional plumber. Those who wish to become licensed plumbers must pass an exam that tests their technical knowledge and skill.

In addition to on-the-job training, some plumbing schools and vocational colleges offer associate’s degrees in plumbing technology. These degrees can help future plumbers gain entry into the field and can provide a strong foundation for continuing education. It’s also a good idea for prospective plumbers to network with other professionals in the industry to find out about job openings.

Job Outlook

As with most trade jobs, the more experience a plumber gains, the better the pay. Experts in specialty areas like backflow testing, eco-friendly systems and smart home systems often command higher rates for their expertise. Certification in these areas also adds to your value, and demonstrates your commitment to staying up-to-date with industry technology.

The demand for plumbing services should remain high for the foreseeable future. Aging infrastructure will continue to need repairs and upgrades, particularly in urban centers with growing populations. Additionally, the push for green building practices will likely lead to increased demand for plumbers who specialize in installing and maintaining eco-friendly equipment.

In general, job security for plumbers should be good, although employment is subject to the overall economy and construction activity levels. For instance, when the economy takes a hit, demand for new construction may decrease, which could affect plumbers who focus on installation and maintenance of existing systems.

Plumbers who work for large companies or government agencies typically enjoy stable employment. These positions offer benefits including health insurance, retirement plans and paid vacations. Additionally, plumbers can work their way up the ranks and become master plumbers, which is the highest professional level in the field. Master plumbers often earn very well and enjoy flexible work schedules.

With a little time and effort, you can start your career as a service plumber by attending an apprenticeship program offered by many vocational schools. In this type of program, you will learn on the job while getting paid, giving you the skills and confidence you need to begin your career without incurring a lot of debt. Additionally, you can take on freelance or contract work to supplement your income until you are fully qualified and ready to start your own business. With so many options available, it is important to do your research and find a program that offers the best return on your investment. Be sure to ask friends and family for recommendations and read reviews before making a decision.

Hunting Essentials

How to Choose a Light Hunting Pack

Light Hunting Pack is a crucial piece of gear. It needs to be comfortable, durable, and big enough to haul standard loads as well as heavy loads of meat.

Hunting Pack

Fortunately, today’s top-tier backpacks are not only great for hiking and camping but also for hunting. These packs are lightweight, nimble, and quiet.

When a hunter heads into the mountains to chase big game it’s all about the gear. It needs to be lightweight and rugged enough to haul the heavy loads of food and camping gear. It needs to be versatile enough to cover a range of hunting styles, from mountain goat and sheep hunts to high-country deer hunts. It also needs to be comfortable enough for a week or more at a time.

This is where a quality backpack comes in. One that’s designed with the internal frame design and is light enough to be comfortable under a full load. This type of pack is usually built with more pockets, different types of storage and features than a traditional external frame pack.

The capacity of a hunting pack is another important factor. The more stuff you have to carry the heavier it will be and the more likely your back is to suffer from fatigue and injury. The general rule of thumb is that your backpack should not exceed 15% of your body weight. It may take some time to learn how much you can fit in a pack but with some careful planning and self discipline it’s possible to stay within the guidelines.

For day or overnight trips a small to medium hunting pack is ideal. This size will allow you to fit a day’s worth of food, water, sleeping bag, tent and any other necessary equipment for your trip. Larger hunting packs are more suitable for multi-day or even week long trips. These types of packs will accommodate a sleeping bag, bivvy kit and all of your food and supplies for a week in the mountains.

When choosing a pack, remember that you’ll be wearing it all day while hiking and hunting so comfort is extremely important. Look for a pack with padded straps and back panel for extra support to avoid rubbing or pinching. Look for a pack that has an adjustable shoulder strap design and features an ergonomic waist belt backed with articulating EVA foam. It’s also a good idea to purchase a warranty with your pack just in case of any damage or defects.


A lightweight hunting pack is important to the overall experience of a backcountry hunt. A light pack helps you maintain the mobility needed to navigate tough terrain off trail and to glass, ethically process, and harvest your game. It also enables you to carry enough food, water and gear for the length of your trip. In addition, a lightweight pack can help you gain elevation more quickly and endure longer backpacking treks.

When choosing a hunting backpack, the first thing to consider is storage capacity. A day pack that holds 1000-2000 cubic inches is ideal for carrying a day of water, extra clothing, and other essentials. For a multi-day hunt, look for a pack that carries 3000-4000 cubic inches. This size can fit your shelter, cooking gear, and a few days of food.

The next thing to consider is the weight of a hunting pack. A lightweight hunting pack should weigh less than 4 lbs unpacked and no more than 20% of your body weight when fully packed. Keep in mind that the frame of a pack accounts for about 75% of the total weight, while the bag contributes the remaining 25%.

It is also important to choose a hunting pack that has a breathable suspension system. This will distribute the weight of your load evenly, preventing you from pulling a muscle or injuring your hips. Moreover, a breathable suspension system will reduce sweating on your back, allowing you to remain cool and comfortable while hiking.

Lastly, a high-quality hunting pack should be durable and made of a rugged fabric. Some of the best options include cordura nylon, nylon packcloth, fleece or microfleece, and more advanced fabrics such as X-Pac laminate or Spectra X-Grid. If you’re planning a long trek in harsh environments, choose a durable pack with a waterproof coating that protects your belongings from moisture and snow.

At Stone Glacier, we specialize in ultralight mountain hunting packs. Our pack designers build these packs by hand, balancing technical performance, lightweight packability, and durability for demanding backcountry pursuits. Our cutting-edge ULTRA fabric blend combines ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), which is 15x stronger than steel per unit of weight, with high-tenacity polyester and then laminated to a waterproof film.


Once you’ve cut out the extras and figured out how much weight your pack should carry, it’s important to organize your gear efficiently. Keeping your most used items at the top of the bag and less-used things near the bottom can make a big difference in how comfortable and easy it is to access the gear you need during the hunt. It’s also a good idea to include emergency shelter items like a lightweight tarp or space blanket in your hunting backpack so that you’ll be prepared for unexpected backcountry conditions.

For added convenience and customization, look for a pack that has pockets and pouches designed to fit specific gear. Some packs even feature modular designs that allow you to attach a day pack for overnight trips or other uses.


When you’re carrying a heavy load for long distances, the suspension system on your backpack is critical to your comfort. A good suspension design distributes weight evenly to keep you from overworking your back and shoulders. It also allows you to carry more gear without feeling weighed down.

A well-designed suspension system features padded shoulder straps and a waist belt. The waist belt typically includes a buckle and Velcro straps to secure gear and accessories without removing the pack. This lets you add ammo holsters, water bottle holsters, bear spray holsters, and other accessories without taking up valuable pack space.

Durability is another important factor to consider when choosing a hunting pack. Whether you’re looking for a pack made from industry-standard 500D Cordura or an ultralight model, look for quality components like high-end YKK zippers, advanced stitching techniques, and welded seams. These details help you get more use out of your pack and keep it looking great.

Most hunters will need a versatile, rugged pack for hiking and backpacking in the mountains. It should be light enough to be comfortable with a full load, yet large enough to accommodate a sleeping bag and other essentials. Look for packs with a removable frame and modular compartments to make it easier to fit your ideal setup.

Some hunting packs also include a built-in meat carrier or load shelf for easy meat hauling. This feature helps you minimize the time spent on trailside preparation and makes it easier to pack out your game. Some of these packs have a zippered pocket on the side for quick access to your food and cooking supplies.

If Goldilocks was a diehard big-game hunter, she’d probably prefer a pack that’s “just right.” Overnight backpacks are suitable for one or two-night hunting trips and provide moderate storage capacity. They also usually have sleeping bag compartments and additional pockets for easy organization of hunting equipment. For example, the Kifaru Shape Charge is a lightweight overnight pack that also includes a load shelf for carrying animal quarters.